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ARCHIVED - CBSA Detentions and Removals Programs- Evaluation Study

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Notes

  1. The CBSA was created in December 2003 with the consolidation of the border security and intelligence functions of the former Canada Customs and Revenue Agency (CCRA), CIC and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). [Return to text]
  2. IRPA came into force on June 28, 2002 to replace the previous Immigration Act. [Return to text]
  3. Source: CBSA Web site, Arrests and Detentions. http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/media/facts-faits/007-eng.html (accessed August 19, 2010). [Return to text]
  4. This includes $85 million for the regions and approximately $5 million for Inland Enforcement and Border Operations at HQ. Additional separate annual PSAT funding of $1.55 million was allocated for expediting the National Case Management System (NCMS) roll-out to support these programs.[Return to text]
  5. Source: Inland Enforcement Division (IED) data.[Return to text]
  6. This number includes both individuals who had a criminal record prior to coming to Canada and were deemed inadmissible on that account, as well as foreign nationals and permanent residents who committed a crime while in Canada. [Return to text]
  7. Source: IED data, "Removals at a Glance (2004-05 to 2008-09)".  "Other" can range from persons who stay longer than they are allowed, work or study without permission, misrepresent themselves (marriages of convenience, fraudulent documents), have insufficient funds to support themselves while in Canada to national security transgressions. Further, the categories are not mutually exclusive so that an individual can be removed for more than one of the reasons indicated. [Return to text]
  8. As of July 2009, visa requirements were imposed on Mexican and Czech Republic nationals.[Return to text]
  9. Cases in the working inventory are cases that are removal ready, meaning that IRB or CIC immigration proceedings have been completed and that the removal order is active. [Return to text]
  10. This number is overestimated as detainees are double-counted when they are moved between provinces (e.g., to different facilities or for medical services) or when individuals are released and then re-detained. Source: IED detentions cube, August 6, 2010. [Return to text]
  11. A small percentage of those minors are unaccompanied minors who by policy must be detained. [Return to text]
  12. Starting in 2010, the Global Case Management System (GCMS) Release 2 (International Region) will replace the current GCMS Citizenship application, as well as the Computer Assisted Immigration Processing System (CAIPS) and Immigration Medical System (IMS) currently being used by CIC and CBSA employees. GCMS-2 includes an automated interface with CBSA's Secure Tracking System (STS) and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) that will permit officers at missions overseas and at CBSA HQ to process security screening requests for temporary and permanent resident visa applications. [Return to text]
  13. Source: Toronto Bail Program. The cost avoidance savings are calculated by the TBP and are based on conservative costing models for three categories of detainees. The first category consists of the holding centre clients at $16.50/day/client (meal costs). They are tabulated for a maximum of six months from when they are detained by the CBSA (not when they enter into the TBP). The second category is the immigration jail cases (previously $170/day, as of April 1, 2010, $189 per day – billing by the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services or MCSCS). These represent straight releases to the TBP. Their costs are calculated for a maximum of one year from the date they were detained, not on the date they were released into the program. The third category is the mixed cases representing a combination of cash and/or performance bond. The cost is calculated nine months from the day the person is detained by the CBSA. There is a two-month minimum stay to be included in the cost savings calculations for the jail cases and the Toronto IHC. The $3.4 million figure is based on the number of cases per category in the TBP during the 2008-2009 fiscal year. [Return to text]
  14. Source: IED correspondence. [Return to text]
  15. Under the previous legislation, a removal order would automatically be stayed until a final determination was made on a case. Under the new Act there will be no automatic stay of removal for people from a designated country of origin while a judicial review is pending and for manifestly unfounded claims. [Return to text]



  1. The CBSA was created in December 2003 with the consolidation of the border security and intelligence functions of the former Canada Customs and Revenue Agency, Citizenship and Immigration Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency.[Return to text]
  2. IRPA was enacted on June 28, 2002 to replace the previous Immigration Act. [Return to text]
  3. Source: "CIC and CBSA: Partners in managing migration to Canada, Division of roles and responsibilities". [Return to text]
  4. Bank of Canada. http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/mpr/pdf/2010/mprsumjan10.pdf [Return to text]
  5. Source: "Facts and figures 2008: Immigration Overview, CIC". http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/menu-fact.asp [Return to text]
  6. Source: UNHCR (June 16, 2009). "2008 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons." http://www.unhcr.org/4a375c426.html (accessed June 17, 2010). [Return to text]
  7. Source: IRB, Refugee Protection Division (2010) "Refugee Status Determinations – 1989 to June 2010 (Fiscal Year)" (chart). [Return to text]
  8. The numbers for the in-Canada refugee category are primarily refugee claimants, but also include a small number of other foreign nationals allowed to remain in Canada on humanitarian or compassionate grounds under "special considerations". [Return to text]
  9. Source: IED data. [Return to text]
  10. This number includes both individuals who had a criminal record prior to coming to Canada and were deemed inadmissible on that account, as well as foreign nationals and permanent residents who committed a crime while in Canada. [Return to text]
  11. Source: IED data. The categories are not mutually exclusive in that a failed refugee claimant can be removed for criminality. "Other" can range from persons who stay longer than they are allowed, work or study without permission, misrepresent themselves (marriages of convenience, fraudulent documents) or have insufficient funds to support themselves while in Canada, to national security transgressions. Note that detailed data on removals for fiscal year 2009-2010 was not available at the time of writing. [Return to text]
  12. Source: IED data, "Removals at a Glance 2009, Top 5 Removals by Nationality, 2005-2009". [Return to text]
  13. One year after the Balanced Refugee Reform Act is implemented; the pre-removal risk assessment function will be transferred to the IRB. CIC will retain the authority to conduct pre-removal risk assessments for people who have been found to be inadmissible for serious criminality, organized crime, war crimes or national security issues. Source: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/backgrounders/2010/2010-06-29.asp and "Facts and figures 2008: Immigration overview, CIC." http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/menu-fact.asp [Return to text]
  14. The issuance of a security certificate is not done independently by either organization. [Return to text]
  15. This responsibility was transferred to the Operations Branch effective April 1, 2010. [Return to text]
  16. Source: IRPA Section 6(2) (delegation of powers): "Anything that may be done by the Minister under this Act may be done by a person that the Minister authorizes in writing, without proof of the authenticity of the authorization". [Return to text]
  17. Those considered high risk are primarily persons with criminal backgrounds considered to be a danger to the public or considered to be a flight risk. [Return to text]
  18. The CBSA is allocated $20.4 million in PSAT funding annually for detentions and removals activities. The figure of $22 million includes this funding allocation, as well as an additional separate annual PSAT funding of $1.55 million was allocated for expediting the NCMS rollout to support these programs. [Return to text]
  19. MOU between the CIC and the CBSA (March 2006). "Memorandum of Understanding between the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, the Canada Border Services Agency and the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (April 2008)". [Return to text]
  20. Source: "Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Report: Immigration Overview, 2008". [Return to text]
  21. Starting in 2010, the GCMS Release 2 (International Region) will replace the current GCMS Citizenship application, as well as CAIPS and IMS which are currently being used by CIC and CBSA employees. GCMS-2 includes an automated interface with CBSA's STS and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) that will permit officers at missions overseas and at CBSA HQ to process security screening requests for temporary and permanent resident visa applications. [Return to text]
  22. Source: Canada-U.S. Safe Third Country Agreement. Source: CBSA Web site. http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/agency-agence/stca-etps-eng.html [Return to text]
  23. With the imposition of visas on Mexican and Czech nationals, the number of refugee claims declined significantly in the second half of 2009 to 6,294 land border claims. Source: Intelligence Risk Assessment and Analysis Division, Intelligence Directorate, CBSA (January 2010) "Migration Year Ahead: Canada and Irregular Migration in 2010", Table 1 p.7. [Return to text]
  24. Source: Intelligence Risk Assessment and Analysis Division, Intelligence Directorate, CBSA (January 2010) "Migration Year Ahead: Canada and Irregular Migration in 2010", Table 1 p. 7. [Return to text]
  25. CBSA systems cannot identify cases of "irregular migration", thus what percentage of inland claims are "irregular" is unknown. [Return to text]
  26. Source: Intelligence Risk Assessment and Analysis Division, Intelligence Directorate, CBSA (January 2010). "Migration Year Ahead: Canada and Irregular Migration in 2010", p. 9. [Return to text]
  27. Source: Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), section 55(2 (a),(b). http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/I-2.5/page-3.html#anchorbo-ga:l_1-gb:l_4 (accessed July 22, 2010). [Return to text]
  28. In June 2009, the Government of Canada introduced visa requirements for Mexican and Czech citizens, countries responsible for a 60 percent increase in the number of asylum claims (and one-third of all claims filed in Canada in 2008). Source: Opening remarks for The Honourable Jason Kenney, P.C., M.P. Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/speeches/2010/2010-04-08.asp (accessed June 21, 2010). [Return to text]
  29. Source: IED data from NCMS detentions cube, May 3, 2010. [Return to text]
  30. The "removals inventory" contains all outstanding removal orders, sorted by category: unenforceable, stayed, and working inventory. [Return to text]
  31. These include persons who stay longer than they are allowed, work or study without permission, misrepresent themselves (marriages of convenience, fraudulent documents) or have insufficient funds to support themselves while in Canada. [Return to text]
  32. Source: IED data. [Return to text]
  33. Note: The number of detentions is for the fiscal year that the detention began, but may carry over into other years. Approximately 60 percent are not detained prior to being removed. [Return to text]
  34. Source: Speaking notes: Opening remarks for The Honourable Jason Kenney, P.C., M.P., Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism. "Balanced Refugee Reform", given at The Canadian Club, Winnipeg, Manitoba, April 8, 2010. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/speeches/2010/2010-04-08.asp (accessed June 14, 2010). [Return to text]
  35. AVR would potentially provide failed refugee claimants with education and limited financial assistance to voluntarily return to their country of origin following a final negative decision and after all legal recourses have been exhausted. "Backgrounder: How Canada's proposed reforms to the asylum system compare internationally", http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/backgrounders/2010/2010-03-30c.asp
    (accessed June 14, 2010).

    [Return to text]
  36. The CBSA has an MOU with the provinces of Quebec and Alberta and a Letter of Understanding with B.C. The MOU with Quebec is currently being renegotiated, and talks are underway with Ontario to develop an MOU. [Return to text]
  37. Under CBSA detention guidelines, the Canadian Red Cross is permitted unfettered access to immigration detainees to monitor their well-being and ensure their rights are upheld (e.g., access to legal council). [Return to text]
  38. CBSA (2002) "CBSA National Standards and Monitoring Plan for the Regulation and Operation of CBSA Detention Centres (DCs)". [Return to text]
  39. Restrictions include: forbidding the CBSA to transit removals through their airports; limiting the total number of removals within a certain time frame; requiring a minimum number of escorts per removal; or requiring considerable advance notice of removals. [Return to text]
  40. A new IEO learning path and training has recently been completed.[Return to text]
  41. CBSA interviews and documentation indicate that NCMS will be rolled out to more POEs and enhanced NCMS training and documentation is planned, when additional funding is available. [Return to text]
  42. Système de Gestion des Activités des Détenus de l'Immigration (SGADI). An internal CBSA assessment recommended discontinuing this system several years ago. [Return to text]
  43. The number of refugee claims at airports fluctuates due to changes in visa policies, and global or country situations. Source: "Year Ahead: Canada and Irregular Migration in 2010", January 2010. Intelligence Risk Assessment and Analysis Division, Intelligence Directorate, CBSA. [Return to text]
  44. This number is overestimated as detainees are double-counted when they are moved between provinces (e.g., to different facilities or for medical services) or when individuals are released and then re-detained. Source: IED detentions cube, August 6, 2010. [Return to text]
  45. A small percentage of those minors are unaccompanied minors who by policy must be detained. [Return to text]
  46. Source: IED data. Consolidated Management Reporting Service (CMRS) data cube "Criminal/Low Risk: Detention Snapshot for April 22nd, 2010". [Return to text]
  47. Hearings officers present recommendations, but the IRB is the final arbiter of determining the conditions of release. The reason for the decreased use of bonds as a condition by the IRB was outside the scope of this evaluation. [Return to text]
  48. Source: IED detentions cubeNational minor stats by region 2010-06-03". [Return to text]
  49. IRB adjudicators are governed by the following principles:
    • "Detention is an exceptional restraining measure in our society;
    • Although the Immigration Act does not limit the total duration of detention, there are implicit restrictions on the power of detention;
    • Detention for a reasonable length of time, given all the circumstances of the case, is the standard applicable to continued detention; and
    • The right guaranteed by Section 7 of the Charter implies that continued detention must be in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice."
  50. Source: "Guidelines Issued by the Chairperson, Pursuant to Section 65(4) of the Immigration Act". Immigration and Refugee Board. Ottawa, Canada: Effective date: March 12, 1998. [Return to text]

  51. Included within this time frame are other immigration processes such as IRB hearings and PRRAs, which "stay" the removal order pending a decision. [Return to text]
  52. Displays average number of days from when removal order is first issued to the date of removal. [Return to text]
  53. Source: IED data, "Removals at a Glance 2009E". [Return to text]
  54. These would include Convention refugees, protected persons and positive conclusion of humanitarian and compassionate (H&C) cases. Note that Convention refugees many never claim permanent resident status as they may desire to return to their country of origin once the situation permits. However, their "pending landing" status stays in the system indefinitely, unless they are confirmed deceased or have left the country. [Return to text]
  55. Source: Data provided by Pacific Regional Enforcement Centre, July 29, 2010 from NCMS removals cube. [Return to text]
  56. "Ontario includes four CBSA regions: Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Northern Ontario Region (NORO), Niagara Falls/Fort Erie (NFE) and Windsor/St. Clair (WSC). Source: CMRS cube (accessed December 16, 2009). [Return to text]
  57. Data available by provinces only; it does not include data from the territories. [Return to text]
  58. Source: Data produced by the Operational Monitoring and Reporting Section (Operations Branch). [Return to text]
  59. These figures represent the sum of confirmation of departures flagged with a removal cause of IRPA 36(2)(a), 36(2)(d), or 36(1)(a), and those with a removal cause of IRPA 36(2)(a), 36(2)(d), or 36(1)(a) that were not flagged on their confirmation of departure. [Return to text]
  60. Exclusion Order: The individual must leave Canada and cannot return for at least one year (two years if removed for misrepresentation) without the Government of Canada's written permission.
    Departure Order: The individual must leave Canada within 30 days and notify the CBSA before doing so. Failure to comply with the departure order after 30 days or to notify the CBSA will result in a deportation order.
    Deportation Order: The individual is to be removed and is permanently barred from Canada without the Government of Canada's written permission. [Return to text]
  61. Source: "Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada: An Overview". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB) Web site. http://www.cisr-irb.gc.ca/eng/brdcom/publications/oveape/Pages/index.aspx (accessed June 18, 2010). [Return to text]
  62. Removal data shown is for 2009 calendar year. Since no historical data are available, inventory data shown represents a ‘snapshot' as of August 24, 2010. [Return to text]
  63. Source: WRC data (accessed August 8, 2010).
    [Return to text]
  64. Note: The Canadian Police Services category includes all local and provincial police services and the RCMP. The other Canadian Agencies category includes CSIS, DFAIT, Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP), Metropolitan Toronto Housing Corporation, Toronto Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy, and others. The U.S. Agencies category includes the FBI, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. police services and other U.S. agencies. [Return to text]
  65. Source: WRC data (accessed August 8, 2010). [Return to text]
  66. IED has developed a management plan to tackle the outstanding immigration warrants for removal and updated it as of February 5, 2010. Among other measures, it includes collaborating with the United States to determine how many of these warrants are for persons residing in there. [Return to text]
  67. National statistics are unavailable.[Return to text]
  68. The total warrant inventory for the Pacific Region declined from 5,416 to 5,058 between the end of Q2 and the end of Q4 of fiscal year 2009-2010, and a further drop to 4,693 in Q1 of fiscal year 2010-2011. Source: Pacific Region Enforcement Centre, data provided on July 29, 2010. [Return to text]
  69. Priority 1: All files ranked Crim 1, Crim 2, danger opinion and outstanding charges. This group also includes organized crime, war crimes and security cases. Priority 2: All removal files that are PRRA-concluded and have one of the following: travel document, an identity document or other documentation. Priority 3: All other warrant files not falling into Priority 1 or 2. [Return to text]
  70. Source: CBSA Communications Directorate, summary of the monthly "Overview of the Public Environment" from April 2008 to March 2009. [Return to text]
  71. Source: CBSA Communications and Consultation Directorate, Marketing and Communications Services Division. [Return to text]
  72. Expenditures provided by IED for their detentions and removals activities at HQ did not match figures provided by Comptrollership. This section uses the Comptrollership figures only. Financial data for Northern Ontario Region are not available for fiscal year 2005-2006. Detention figures include IHC expenditures. [Return to text]
  73. Source: Comptrollership Branch data. [Return to text]
  74. This project spent $1.57 million in fiscal year 2008-2009. Source: Public Security Initiatives Annual Reporting 2008-09 (accessed August 18, 2010). [Return to text]
  75. This includes costs associated with the IHCs and payments to the provinces for the use of their detention facilities.[Return to text]
  76. These expenses may include the cost of running the Kingston IHC for security certificates. The Kingston IHC expenses fall within the Northern Ontario Region's budget, and were estimated at $2 million in 2008, regardless of the number of persons being held at the centre, which is reserved for security certificate cases. [Return to text]
  77. Note: Detainee information is only available by province, not CBSA region. [Return to text]
  78. Note: Quebec could not break out IHC-related expenses from overall detentions expenditures. Moreover, the Laval IHC benefits from the use of a CSC inmate rehabilitation program that provides low-cost meals and housekeeping. As such, this number overestimates of the amount spent at the Laval IHC. [Return to text]
  79. Estimate calculation based on total expenditures in fiscal year 2008-2009, for each IHC over 365 days by maximum number of detainees per IHC. The actual per diem costs are likely underestimated as these facilities are very rarely full. However, basic expenses such as leases, maintenance and security must be maintained, while other expenses such as linens and meals fluctuate with the number of detainees. [Return to text]
  80. Source: Cost data provided by Comptrollership. "Costing For Detentions - Provincial Per Diem Versus IHC Per Diem Calculations". [Return to text]
  81. Source: Cost data provided by Comptrollership. Removals data provided by IED: "2008-2009 Removals at a Glance". [Return to text]
  82. Source: Cost data provided by Comptrollership. Removals data provided by IED: "2008-2009 Removals at a Glance". [Return to text]
  83. Source: IED correspondence. [Return to text]
  84. Source: IED data: "2008-2009 Removals at a Glance". [Return to text]
  85. The IRB conducted an evaluation of the use of videoconferencing, resulting in "The Videoconferencing in Refugee Hearings, Ellis Report to the Immigration and Refugee Board Audit and Evaluation Committee" by S. Ronald Ellis, Q.C. October 21, 2004. The report made several specific suggestions to ensure the fairness and effectiveness of this way of conducting hearings. http://www.irb.gc.ca/eng/disdiv/proeva/revs/video/Pages/index.aspx (accessed June 21, 2010). [Return to text]
  86. Source: Toronto Bail Program. The cost avoidance savings are calculated by the TBP and are based on conservative costing models for three categories of detainees. The first category consists of the immigration holding centre clients at $16.50/day/client (meal costs). They are tabulated for a maximum of six months from when they are detained by the CBSA (not when they enter into the TBP). The second category is the immigration jail cases (previously $170/day, as of April 1, 2010, $189 per day – billing by the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services or MCSCS). These represent straight releases to the TBP. Their costs are calculated for a maximum of one year from the date they were detained, not on the date they were released into the program. The third category is the mixed cases representing a combination of cash and/or performance bond. The cost is calculated nine months from the date they were detained. There is a twp-month minimum stay included in the cost savings calculations for the jail cases and the Toronto IHC. The $3.4 million figure is based on the number of cases per category in the TBP during fiscal year 2008-2009. [Return to text]
  87. Source: John Howard Society Of Alberta (2000), "Electronic Monitoring" http://www.johnhoward.ab.ca/pub/A3.htm (accessed June 24, 2010). [Return to text]
  88. CSC provides supervised detention of federal inmates in facilities, as well as community corrections options such as monitoring by CSC employees. They have the infrastructure expertise and training already in place related to the management of a detained population, although additional training sensitizing CSC to the special nature of immigration detainees (rather than criminal ones) would be needed http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/lgsltn-eng.shtml. [Return to text]
  89. Studies show the private sector could build the new facilities more quickly and run them at a lower cost than government agencies, but active monitoring by the CBSA would be necessary to ensure compliance with detention standards. Source: Bender, E. (2000) ‘Private Prisons, Politics and Profits' Follow the Money. Montana: Institute on Money in State Politics", http://www.followthemoney.org/press/ZZ/20000701.phtml and "The Evolution of Immigration Detention in the U.K.: The Involvement of Private Prison Companies", University of Oxford Web site. http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/RSCworkingpaper27.pdf.  [Return to text]
  90. Source: IED correspondence. [Return to text]
  91. Source: Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (IRPR 278) – 280 http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/SOR-2002-227/index.html (accessed June 22, 2010) and Pre-Border Programs, Advanced Passenger Information (API). [Return to text]
  92. The fee may also be less if the airline is a signatory to the R280 MOU with the CBSA and meets certain performance standards. The MOU, which expired on April 1, 2010, had 60 airline signatories. The new MOU is open-ended as opposed to renewable every two years and the performance standards are updated every year. This more stringent MOU currently has 46 signatories. [Return to text]
  93. Office of the Auditor General. 2008 May Report, Chapter 7, http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_200805_07_e_30703.html (accessed 22 June 2010). Note: Interviewees indicated that the small number of removal liability cases reported for recovery may, in part, be due to the fact that the Agency cannot hold Air Canada liable for the removal of any inadmissible foreign national brought to Canada by the airline prior to April 1, 2003, when it was granted bankruptcy protection. This does not apply to any inadmissible foreign national who Air Canada carried to Canada on or after April 1, 2003. Source: "Transportation Unit Annual Report: April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009", p. 3-4.  [Return to text]
  94. Source: Revenue Management, CBSA Transportation Unit, May 20, 2010. [Return to text]
  95. Source: "International Law and Domestic Courts: A Comparative Study of Immigrant Detention in Australia, Canada and the U.S.", by Rebecca Hamlin, University of California, Berkeley, April 2006. [Return to text]
  96. This process currently only applies to refugees arriving at a POE and to refugees interdicted at sea and brought to the United States. [Return to text]
  97. Source: International Organization for Migration (UK), "Voluntary Assisted Return and Reintegration Programme - VARRP," available online at http://www.iomlondon.org/varrp.htm (accessed December 13, 2010). [Return to text]
  98. Criminal deportation is the deportation of a non-citizen who commits an offence for which they are sentenced to imprisonment for 12 months or more in their first 10 years of residence, who has been found to constitute a threat to Australia's security, or who has been convicted of certain other serious offences. [Return to text]
  99. Source: Éloignement des étrangers. Official French civil service Web site, http://vosdroits.service-public.fr/N109.xhtml (accessed June 1, 2010). [Return to text]
  100. Source: IED data. [Return to text]
  101. This number includes both individuals who had a criminal record prior to coming to Canada and were deemed inadmissible on that account, as well as foreign nationals and permanent residents who committed a crime while in Canada. [Return to text]
  102. Source: IED data, "Removals at a Glance (2004-05 to 2008-09)". "Other" can range from persons who stay longer than they are allowed, work or study without permission, misrepresent themselves (marriages of convenience, fraudulent documents), have insufficient funds to support themselves while in Canada, to national security transgressions. [Return to text]
  103. As of July 2009, visa requirements were imposed on Mexican and Czech Republic nationals. [Return to text]
  104. Cases in the working inventory are cases that are removal ready, meaning that IRB or CIC immigration proceedings have been completed and that the removal order is active.  [Return to text]
  105. This number is overestimated as detainees are double-counted when they are moved between provinces (e.g., to different facilities or for medical services) or when individuals are released and then re-detained. Source: IED detentions cube, August 6, 2010. [Return to text]
  106. A small percentage of those minors are unaccompanied minors who by policy must be detained. [Return to text]
  107. Starting in 2010, the Global Case Management System (GCMS) Release 2 (International Region) will replace the current GCMS Citizenship application as well as the Computer Assisted Immigration Processing System (CAIPS) and Immigration Medical System (IMS) currently being used by CIC and CBSA employees. GCMS-2 includes an automated interface with CBSA's Secure Tracking System (STS) and the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) that will permit officers at missions overseas and at CBSA HQ to process security screening requests for temporary and permanent resident visa applications. [Return to text]
  108. Source: Toronto Bail Program. The cost avoidance savings are calculated by the TBP and are based on conservative costing models for three categories of detainees. The first category consists of the holding centre clients at $16.50/day/client (meal costs). Costs are tabulated for a maximum of six months from when clients are detained by the CBSA (not when they enter into the TBP). The second category is the immigration jail cases (previously $170/day, as of April 1, 2010, $189 per day – billing by the Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services or MCSCS). These represent straight releases to the TBP. Their costs are calculated for a maximum of one year from the date they were detained, not the date they were released into the program. The third category is the mixed cases representing a combination of cash and/or performance bond. The cost is calculated nine months from the date they were detained by the CBSA. There is a two-month minimum stay to be included in the cost savings' calculations for the jail cases and the Toronto IHC. The $3.4 million figure is based on the number of cases per category in the TBP during fiscal year 2008-2009. [Return to text]
  109. Source: IED correspondence. [Return to text]
  110. Under the current legislation (IRPA), a removal order would automatically be stayed until a final determination was made on a case. Under the new Balanced Refugee Reform Act, there will be no automatic stay of removal for people from a designated country of origin while a judicial review is pending and for manifestly unfounded claims. [Return to text]