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ARCHIVED - CBSA Participation in Joint Force Operations

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Notes

  1. Due to their temporary nature, short-term and ad-hoc JFOs were excluded from the scope of the evaluation. [Return to text]
  2. IOs gather, develop and disseminate intelligence. Their main duties include initiating intelligence probes, collecting information and determining its accuracy and reliability, and sharing information with other law enforcement agencies. [Return to text]
  3. IAs conduct analysis of information gathered to identify risks and intelligence gaps. IAs produce intelligence products such as bulletins and alerts. [Return to text]
  4. As result of reorganisation, WSC and NFE are currently part of the Southern Ontario region. However, over the period of the research these were separate regions. [Return to text]
  5. Source: Beyond the Border: a Shared Vision for Perimeter Security and Economic Competitiveness [Return to text]
  6. An "Occurrence" refers to a piece of information that an IO receives and maintains for intelligence purposes. [Return to text]
  7. Mandate creep was a term used by CBSA regional managers to describe situations when a CBSA officer becomes involved in duties of other law enforcement agencies that are not within the CBSA mandate. CBSA regional managers indicated that the probability of this occurring could increase when officers serve on JFOs for long periods of time. [Return to text]
  8. This includes salary and employee benefits. [Return to text]
  9. A WCA is a written description of what two or more participants agree to do. WCAs include Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) – Administrative or Financial; MOU – Information Sharing; MOU – Joint Force Operations (JFOs); Letter of Intent or a Letter of Amendment. (Source: CBSA Policy Guide for the Management and Development of Written Collaborative Arrangements). [Return to text]
  10. Figures in brackets indicate number of JFOs of that type in region. [Return to text]
  11. Regional abbreviations: ATL – Atlantic, QUE – Quebec, NOR – Northern Ontario, GTA – Greater Toronto Area, NFE – Niagara/Fort Erie (as of April 1, 2010, NFE is part of the Southern Ontario Region), WSC – Windsor St. Clair (as of April 1, 2010, WSC is part of the Southern Ontario Region), PRA –Prairie, PAC - Pacific [Return to text]
  12. PAC IBET totals includes one regional Integrated Border Intelligence Team (IBIT). The IBIT consists of the same partners as the IBET and its main function is to support IBETs with information and intelligence. As such, for the purpose of the evaluation the IBIT was considered to be similar to the IBET and is included in the IBET totals. [Return to text]
  13. One CR-05 FTE is assigned to the ITF and is included in the CBSA total count, but is not represented in the table. [Return to text]
  14. Other JFO partners include the York Police, Durham Police, Windsor Police, Sault Ste Marie Police, Ottawa Police, Gatineau Police, Halifax Regional Police, Niagara Police, Hamilton Police, Niagara Regional Police, le Surete du Quebec, and the Gatineau Police. Additionally, municipal Police Forces in Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton and Vancouver provide assistance to the NPETs in their respective regions. [Return to text]
  15. Group interviews have been counted as one interview. [Return to text]
  16. Source: Beyond the Border: a Shared Vision for Perimeter Security and Economic Competitiveness [Return to text]
  17. Source: 2009-2010 RPP [PDF, 310 KB] [Return to text]
  18. CBSA 2011 Border Threat Risk Assessment (BTRA), January 2011. [Return to text]
  19. Examples of successes of CBSA participation in JFOs are outlined in Case Studies of Project E-Paragon and the Galdamez Human Smuggling Case. [Return to text]
  20. This report noted that border security efforts are enhanced through partnerships with Canadian law enforcement agencies to share intelligence, information, and conduct joint operations for interdiction and investigation of cross-border crime. Source: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination is needed for the Northern Border, GAO, December 2010, GAO 11-97 [PDF, 1.7 MB]. [Return to text]
  21. Reports include an assessment of issues related to Title 19 designation for CIs and reports to the President on CBSA involvement in BEST in January 2011 and June 2011. [Return to text]
  22. 2004 Regional Intelligence Officers and Customs Investigators Job Hazard Analysis Final Report; 2005 CBSA Audit of Information Exchange – Memoranda of Understanding with HRSD; 2007 Audit of the Personal Information Management Practices of the CBSA Trans-Border Data by the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada [Return to text]
  23. A standard template for JFO WCAs was developed in 2006/2007 but was not fully implemented. A revised template is under development by the WCAA group in conjunction with Intelligence and Targeting Programs Community Management Unit. [Return to text]
  24. Figures in brackets indicate number of JFOs of that type in region. [Return to text]
  25. This would include meeting the information sharing requirements as stipulated in Section 107 of the Customs Act . [Return to text]
  26. The ITF and Toronto Fugitive Squad were omitted from this analysis. The criteria used in the analysis are from the Customs Enforcement Manual and focus on sharing information, they therefore do not apply to the ITF and Fugitive squad, whose work focuses on immigration and the execution of warrents. [Return to text]
  27. CBSA Enforcement Manual, Part 7, Chapter 3, Sections 83, 85,136. [Return to text]
  28. This includes IMS, Criminal Investigations Information Management System (CIIMS), FOSS, ICES, etc. All of the systems they would use in a CBSA office, they have access to when a LAN connection is set up for access to the CBSA network. [Return to text]
  29. Apart from more focused work and a higher number of cases. [Return to text]
  30. Source: IBET NCT. [Return to text]
  31. It should be noted that this figure is based on a sample of officers and is only applicable to IOs. The range is 0.75 to 11 years. [Return to text]
  32. Mandate creep was a term used by CBSA regional managers to describe situations when a CBSA officer becomes involved in duties of other law enforcement agencies that are not within the CBSA mandate. CBSA regional managers indicated that the probability of this occurring could increase when officers serve on JFOs for long periods of time. [Return to text]
  33. The study examined six areas of cooperation: Screening & Targeting, Intelligence, Operations, Information Sharing, Governance and Human Resources. [Return to text]
  34. "Cases" refer to in-depth investigations. [Return to text]
  35. "Occurrences" refers to a solitary piece of information that an IO receives and maintains for intelligence purposes. [Return to text]
  36. IBET performance data drawn from Canada/United States IBET Threat Assessment (2008-2009). Other seizures include currency, firearms, contraband tobacco, passports, vehicles, etc. [Return to text]
  37. IBET tracks the following types of apprehensions: human smuggling, human trafficking, un-facilitated entries and smuggling. [Return to text]
  38. Other seizures include currency, firearms, contraband tobacco, passports, vehicles, etc. [Return to text]
  39. 92.8% in 2009 and 65% in 2010. [Return to text]
  40. 98.4% in 2009 and 69.6% in 2010. [Return to text]
  41. All seizures includes seizures of narcotics (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, opium and methamphetamine) and other contraband (currency, firearms, tobacco, passports, vehicles, etc.). [Return to text]
  42. As the lead for BEST, the regional Supervisory Special Agent collects performance information that is maintained by Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) for reporting purposes. The BEST is a federally funded U.S. program, which exists to enforce U.S. laws and is managed by U.S. ICE. As such, enforcement results reported are only for the U.S. [Return to text]
  43. During this period, seizures (in imperial pounds) of ecstasy (22.9%), cocaine (27.5%), and methamphetamine (66.7%) increased while those for marijuana (-34.9%) and currency (in USD) (-49.5%) declined. [Return to text]
  44. Interim report of the Involvement of the CBSA in the Border Enforcement Security Task Force (BEST), Criminal Investigations Division, Post-Border Programs, Programs Branch, January 2011, p. 15. [Return to text]
  45. U.S. Title 19 designation grants non-U.S. law enforcement officers the authority to work in the U.S.. Canadian officers working on BEST that have Title 19 designation have the same protection and liabilities as a U.S. ICE officer. They are legally permitted to conduct activities while working in the U.S. including investigations, surveillance and interviews, and are permitted to carry a duty firearm. The CBSA Policy on the Wearing of Protective and Defensive Equipment prohibits CBSA officers from carrying defensive equipment outside Canada. [Return to text]
  46. Update on the CBSA's Participation in the Border Enforcement Task Force (BEST), Criminal Investigations Division, Post-Border Programs, Programs Branch, June 2011, pp.6-7. [Return to text]
  47. Files opened by IOs on behalf of CIs. CIs do not have access to IMS. [Return to text]
  48. Interim Report of the Involvement of the CBSA in the Border Enforcement Security Task Force (BEST), Criminal Investigations Division, Post-Border Programs, Programs Branch, January 2011, p.10. [Return to text]
  49. NPET results provided by RCMP Border Integrity Division. [Return to text]
  50. NPET reported enforcement actions include: drug seizures, controlled deliveries, illegal migration, counterfeit merchandise, stolen vehicles, tobacco, firearms, arrests/charges. [Return to text]
  51. Cannabis, hashish, cocaine, heroin, ketamine and ecstasy. [Return to text]
  52. Montreal NPET has seized approximately 1,382 stolen vehicles, Halifax NPET has seized approximately 275 stolen vehicles [Return to text]
  53. Serious criminality includes subjects convicted of an offence where they could have received a jail sentence of ten years or more and involve weapons, drugs, sexual assault, violence and organized crime cases. [Return to text]
  54. Source: CBSA Intranet, GTA Divisions. [Return to text]
  55. Misbahuddin Ahmed, Hiva Alizadeh and Khurram Sher. [Return to text]
  56. Operating and maintenance costs are assumed to be minimal since most CBSA officers are located in partners' facilities. [Return to text]
  57. Note: these estimates represent salary expenses based on reported number of IEOs, IOs, IAs, CIs and CR-05s participating in JFOs. Financial estimates are based on mid-level salary levels as outlined by Collective Bargaining Agreement. O&M and vehicles are not included. Salaries used for calculations are as follows: CR-05 –$48, 170, FB-03 – $64,127, FB-04 – $69, 712, FB-05 – $76, 329. [Return to text]
  58. Note: Internal services are not included in this total however they are estimated to be $3,161,972 which would bring the total expenditures for enforcement teams to approximately $8 M. [Return to text]
  59. IBID. [Return to text]
  60. Originally BEST was designed to investigate criminal activity at the PoE, however ICE management interviewed for this evaluation stated that BEST investigations criminality at the border could include areas beyond the PoEs. [Return to text]
  61. In WSC there was reported conflict between ICE and RCMP because BEST was working a file that involved activity between the ports which is the mandate of the IBET. [Return to text]
  62. Source: Enhanced DHS Oversight and Assessment of Interagency Coordination is needed for the Northern Border, GAO, December 2010, GAO 11-97. [Return to text]
  63. Deconfliction is a term used by law enforcement agencies to describe the process of mitigating the risk of duplication of effort. [Return to text]
  64. Source: Beyond the Border: a Shared Vision for Perimeter Security and Economic Competitiveness. [Return to text]
  65. An "Occurrence" refers to a piece of information that an IO receives and maintains for intelligence purposes. [Return to text]
  66. Mandate creep was a term used by CBSA regional managers to describe situations when a CBSA officer becomes involved in duties of other law enforcement agencies that are not within the CBSA mandate. CBSA regional managers indicated that the probability of this occurring could increase when officers serve on JFOs for long periods of time. [Return to text]
  67. This includes the IBIT. [Return to text]

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